HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE ATTEMPT TO OVERTHROW THE REPUBLIC
THE ADHERENTS OF LILIUOKALANI IN JANUARY, 1895
COMPILED BY WALLACE W.
COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISES OF HONOLULU
H. Hackfeld & Company
The firm of H. Hackfeld
& Co. was established on October 1, 1849, by Captain Henry Hackfeld, a
German, who had previously been trading between Honolulu and Mexico,
South America and China, and had become favorably impressed by the
Islands. He brought with him his young wife and his brother-in-law, Mr.
J. C. Pflueger, then 16 years old, and started a small store on Queen street,
near the old store of J. T. Waterhouse. In 1853 Mr. Hackfeld admitted
his brother-in-law as partner of the firm, and the business having been
successful, larger quarters were secured in the store owned by Dr. R. W.
Wood, now the crockery store of Mr. J. T. Waterhouse.
The firm had a large
share of the whaling business, which was then at its best. In 1861 Mr.
Hackfeld returned to Germany to attend to the interests of the firm in
Europe, where he died on October 20, 1887, being 71 years old. Mr.
Pflueger became sole manager in Honolulu
in 1861, and he succeeded in bringing the firm to the foremost rank on
the Islands. They imported largely dry goods and other merchandise in
their own vessels, viz., A. J. Pope, R. W. Wood, R. C. Wyllie, Kaenoi,
lolani, C. R. Bishop, etc. They also were agents for the oldest sugar
plantations on the Islands, and had the business of the first steamers running between
San Francisco, Honolulu
In 1871 Mr. Pflueger
left for Germany, where he died on October 5, 1883, being only 50 years
old, and after having made two visits to Honolulu,
viz., in 1874 and 1881.
From 1871 to 1881
Messrs. J. C. Glade, E. Feirstenau, and later on H. W. Schmidt had
charge of the firm's business, which in 1875 was transferred to the old
Court House premises.
After the beginning of
the Reciprocity Treaty the firm assisted greatly by its financial aid in
the establishment of the following new sugar plantations, viz.: Waianae
Co., Waimanalo Sugar Co., Kilauea Sugar Co., Kekaha Sugar Co. and
Plantations, Kipahulu Sugar Co., Kukaiau Plantation Co. and Ookala Sugar
Plantation Co. In 1881 Messrs. H. Hackfeld, J. C. Pflueger and J. C.
Glade became silent partners with limited liability, and Messrs. Paul
Isenberg, H. F. Glade and J. F. Hackfeld (a nephew of H. Hackfeld)
entered the firm. In 1886 Mr. E. Muller was admitted into the firm, but
he retired again in 1890. Mr. H. W. Schmidt (now Senator for Honolulu)
left the firm in 1889, in order to establish his own business under the
well known firm of H. W. Schmidt & Sons, and In 1894 Mr. H. F. Glade
retired and returned to Germany, leaving Mr. Paul Isenberg, now residing
in Bremen, and Mr. H. Hackfeld, now manager of the firm in Honolulu,
as general partners.
The firm, in connection
with their agents in Bremen, Messrs. J. C Pflueger & Co. (J. C. Pfleuger,
Jr., and C. Henoch, Jr.), are still running their own vessels between Bremen and Liverpool and Honolulu.
The same are known as the barks H. Hackfeld, J. C. Pflueger, Paul
Isenberg, J. C. Glade, and ships Marie Hackfeld and H. F. Glade.
They are agents for the
Pacific Mail Steamship Company and Occidental and Oriental Steamship
Company, whose steamers are now making semi-monthly calls at Honolulu
between San Francisco and Japan and China, and the firm is also agents
for the following sugar plantations: Lihue Plantation Co., Koloa Sugar
Co., Grove Farm Plantation, Hanamaulu Sugar Plantation, Kekaha Sugar
Company, Meier-Kruse, H. P. Faye Co., Pioneer Mill Co., Kipahulu Sugar
Co., and Kukaiau Plantation Co.
In 1890, at the
instigation of Hon. Geo. N. Wilcox, the firm identified itself with a
guano enterprise on Layson
Island, now known as the Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Co. This
corporation erected large fertilizer and acid works at Kalihi in 1893
and 1894, the capacity of which is now being doubled, owing to the
increased demand for artificial fertilizers on the Islands.
The firm has always
held the German and Russian Consulates, Mr. J. W. Pflueger (a brother of
J. C. Pflueger) being Russian Vice Consul at Honolulu from 1871 to 1883.
The following gentlemen
are now special partners of the firm:
Mr. J. C. Glade,
residing at Wiesbaden;
Mr. J. W. Pflueger, residing at Bremen; Mr. J. C. Pflueger, residing at
Bremen; Prof. H. H. Pflueger, residing at Bonn.
Fertilizing Company was organized by the present proprietor and manager,
A. Frank Cooke, in 1888, and has grown from a struggling enterprise,
furnishing to plantations two thousand tons of stable manure annually,
to one of the largest fertilizing works on the Islands, the grounds and buildings covering nearly five acres of
land at Iwelei. It is solely through the energy displayed by Mr. Cooke
that the company is In its present prosperous condition. When he
conceived the plan of supplying plantations with fertilizers he engaged
the old bone mill at Kalihi Kai, formerly owned by G. J. Waller, the
present manager of the Metropolitan Meat Co. But by economy and rare
managerial ability the business soon outgrew the accommodations and
facilities to supply the demand made upon it. Land was leased at Iwelei
and the company, yielding to the pressure brought by a growing
clientelle, the lines were extended until Mr. Cooke found it advisable
to purchase the valuable tract where the works are now situated.
Being essentially a
home industry, it has supplied a revenue to Hawaiians, engaged by the
company as bone gatherers, all over the Islands. Its present condition
and output is evidence of the quality of the product. Besides consuming
yearly hundreds of tons of bones gathered here, the company was ttie
first among the largest importers of nitrates and phosphates in the
It has business
connections in the United States, Europe and South America, who supply
the home factory with the highest grade fertilizers for compounding
purposes. From the United States and Germany sulphate of ammonia, double
super-phosphates and potash is secured, while the nitrates used are from
the famous banks in Chili. Of the double super-phosphates, they carry
phosphoric acid to the extent of thirty-five or forty per cent., soluble
in water, and are the highest grades imported to this country.
The wonderful Natural
Plant Food, a product of Florida, U. S. A., is also imported by the
company in large quantities and treated with chemicals, so that
excellent results are obtained. These fertilizers, and they have no
superior anywhere, are sold by the Hawaiian Fertilizing Co. at prices
ranging to 25 per cent, less than that of other manufacturers. This is
made possible by Mr. Cooke from the fact that the consumer is not called
upon to contribute toward the expense of maintaining high salaried
employes. The company owns in fee simple everything, in connection with
the works, and careful buying, without having to pay agents'
commissions, is a leading factor in obtaining this result.
Since the establishment
of the Experiment Station, analysis of soil is made and the strength and
character of fertilizers required for districts throughout the Islands
is obtainable. Orders for fertilizers mailed to the Hawaiian Fertilizing
Co., with copies of such analysis, will be promptly and satisfactorily
should be addressed to A. F. COOKE, Proprietor and Manager, Honolulu, H.
E. O. Hall & Son,
The business of E. O.
Hall & Son, Limited, was commenced in 1852, under the firm name of E. O.
Hall, at the corner of Fort and King streets, Honolulu, the site still
occupied by the firm.
For over a year after
starting, the business was under the personal charge of Mr. T. L. Leyman,
a half-brother to E. O. Hall, who at that time was editing the
In these early years
most of the customers were natives, and besides hardware the stock
consisted of dry goods of all kinds and quite an assortment of
groceries. In 1859 William W. Hall entered the employ of the firm as
clerk, and became partner with his father in 1865, when the name of the
firm was changed to E. O. Hall & Son.
The firm continued to
deal in hardware, agricultural implements, dry goods, leather, paints
and oils, silver-plated ware, wooden ware, tools of all kinds, kerosene
oil, etc., until about the year 1878, when dry goods were dropped,
except a few staple articles.
In 1880 "Mr. E. Oscar
White, a grandson of E. O. Hall, became an employe of the firm. In 1883
the business was incorporated, and during that same year Edwin O. Hall,
the founder of, the business, died while on a visit to the United
About ten years ago the
company put in stock a complete line of ship chandlery, and this has
become one of the principal features of the business. This includes a
large assortment of manila rope and iron and steel wire rope of all
sizes up to four inches.
The capital stock of
the corporation is $150,000. The following are the officers of the
corporation, who also constitute the Board of Directors: William W.
Hall, President and Manager; E. Oscar White, Secretary and Treasurer;
William F. Allen, Auditor; T. May and T. W. Hobron, Directors.
Oahu Railway And Land Company
This Company is now
running trains to Waianae, 33% miles from Honolulu, the new Extension of
fifteen miles beyond Ewa Plantation having been completed July 1, 1895.
The equipment of the road is first-class in every particular. Excursion
rates are maintained from Saturday morning till Monday of each week. A
first-class hotel is in course of erection at Waianae, and will afford
unequalled bathing facilities. A delightful ride through varied and
unsurpassed scenery, a day of rest and pleasure at Waianae, make an
excursion on the Oahu Railway one of the most attractive features of the
Islands, not only to tourists, but to residents of Honolulu
Pearl City, located on the famous Pearl Harbor, the proposed naval and coaling station of the United States, has
been, laid out in streets, provided with a complete system of water
works, picnic grounds, dancing pavilion, boat houses, etc. Over $100,000
in lots have been sold to 150 different purchasers, and a number of
residences erected; a few very desirable lots may yet be had on very
With a perfect climate
and the pure air from mountain and sea, no other spot on earth can equal
this as a health resort. Dr. P. S. Kellogg, of Battle Creek, Mich., says
of this locality in a recent letter: "When we had reached a height of
1,000 feet, we could observe a marked difference in the atmosphere; so
cool, pure and bracing was it that we were impressed with the thought
that here, removed from the con-laminating influences of unsanitary
surroundings, was an ideal spot for the invalid to find rest for body
This Company controls
over 80,000 acres of valuable land.
Since its organization
in 1888, it has promoted two extensive sugar plantations representing a
cash capital invested of over $2,000,000.
This, together with the
development of promising fruit, coffee and canaigre industries, is
evidence of its enterprise and transforming influence on the Island of
Oahu. A third sugar plantation on an extensive scale is projected, and
there are many opportunities for smaller industries along the line of
road. The proposed extension to Kahuku, 53 miles beyond the present
terminus, will reach another large area of magnificent sugar, rice and
coffee lands; the road has been on a paying basis since it was built,
and as it is further extended will be a blessing to every one
interested, directly or indirectly, in this Island.
G. P. Denison,
Superintendent, B. F. Dillingham, General Manager.
Castle & Cooke
The firm of Castle &
Cooke was formed in 1851 by Samuel N. Castle and Amos S. Cooke.
Samuel Northrup Castle,
senior partner, was born in Cazenovia, N. Y., August 12th, 1808, was
cashier before coming to the Islands in a Cleveland, Ohio bank. He
accepted in 1836 the position of financial agent of the American Board
of Missions for the Islands and landed here April 9, 1837. He remained
as such agent until 1865. In 1851 he formed with Amos S. Cooke the
mercantile firm of Castle & Cooke and continued his relationship until
his death, July 14, 1894, at the age of 86 years,
Amos Starr Cooke was
born in Danbury, Conn.,
in 1810. As a young man he served several years as a bookkeeper with a
large wholesale firm in New York. In 1836 he accepted an appointment as
teacher for the Sandwich Islands Mission from the American Board and
landed in Honolulu April 9, 1837. Mr. and Mrs. Cooke became the
principals Of the school for the young chiefs which position they held
until about 1851 when Mr. Cooke associated himself with Mr. S. N. Castle
and formed the firm of Castle & Cooke. Mr. Cooke on account of failing
health withdrew from active business in 1863, although his interest
continued until purchased by his son in 1871.
J. B. Atherton was born
Nov. 9th, 1837, received his education there, was three years as clerk
in a wholesale commission house before coming to Honolulu, arriving here
in December, 1858, by the ship "Syren." In March, 1859 he became a clerk
for Castle & Cooke and January 1st, 1863, became a partner, remaining as
such until the closing up of the firm in 1894, and was then elected
President and Manager of the corporation, Castle & Cooke, Limited, which
position he still holds.
Joseph Platt Cooke,
eldest son of Amos S. Cooke, was born in Honolulu June 15, 1838, was
educated at Punahou and Yale College, graduating from the latter in
1863. Mr. Cooke returned at once to Honolulu and took his father's place
with the firm of Castle & Cooke. After the death of Mr. Cooke, senior,
in 1871, his son purchased his interest in the firm and remained such
until his death in 1879.
George P. Castle, third
son of S. N. Castle, was born in Honolulu April 29, 1851, was educated
at Punahou and Ann Arbor, Michigan.
He returned to Honolulu
in 1874, when he became a clerk with Castle & Cooke, remaining such
until 1882 when he purchased a portion of his father's interest and
became a partner, remaining such until the closing up of the firm and
its incorporation as Castle & Cooke, Limited, when he was elected
Vice-President, which position he now holds.
Wm. A. Bowen, nephew of
S. N. Castle, was born in York, Ohio, March 17, 1853, was educated at
Obeilin College and came to Honolulu, arriving July 16, 1878, at which
time he became bookkeeper for Castle & Cooke. In 1888 he purchased an
interest in the firm and remained a partner until the incorporation of
the firm into Castle & Cooke, Limited, when he was elected Treasurer,
which position he still holds.
Edward D. Tenney,
nephew of S. N. Castle, was born in Plainfield, N. Y., January 26th,
1859; was educated there and in Janesville Ohio; came to the Islands in 1877
spending the first few years in cane cultivation at Papaikou, Hawaii. In
1880 he came to Honolulu and became a clerk with Castle & Cooke,
remaining such until 1889 when he purchased an interest in the firm. In
1894 when the firm became incorporated he was elected Secretary of
Castle & Cooke, Limited, and remains such at this time.
The Pacific Hardware
The Pacific Hardware
Company, a limited corporation, holds the distinction of possessing the
oldest hardware store west of the Rocky Mountains, having been first
started by Henry Dimond in 1849. Later the business was carried on by
Hall & Dimond and in 1869 passed into the hands of Dillingham & Co. The
firm was made up of B. F. Dillingham and Alfred Castle. Mr. Castle,
being at the time Registrar of Public Accounts, was not an active
member, and upon Mr. Dillingham devolved the management of the business.
This partnership continued for five years, and about the time of its
expiration Mr. Castle died.
continued the business, however, in his own interest and that of his
late partner's estate until 1884, when the concern was incorporated
under the name of the Pacific Hardware Company. In 1880 James G. Spencer
became a member of the firm. Since 1884 Mr. Dillingham has been
President of the Company.
The elegant brick
structure of the Pacific Hardware Company on Fort street is
unquestionably one of the handsomest business stores in Honolulu, and
was erected especially for their use. In addition to the large stock of
hardware here carried, they also have a choice collection of art goods,
a separate room for the exhibition of which is set apart in the upper
portion of the building. The two stories of the building, are occupied
by this company, a broad and ornamental staircase connecting the two.
The salesrooms are commodious and ample in size, being about 75 by 100
feet in dimensions.
A handsome stock of the
many articles used in home decorations is also carried, as well as a
full line of plantation supplies.
The present officers of
the company are President, B. F. Dillingham; Secretary, Jas. G. Spencer;
Treasurer, G. S. Harris, Jr.; Auditor, W. F. Allen.
The Hawaiian Electric
The Hawaiian Electric
Company was the pioneer electric lighting and supply company of the
Hawaiian Islands, to be organized by private citizens. The
enterprise was first started by E. O. Hall & Sons, being incorporated in
January, 1893, with a capital stock of $20,000. The capital stock has
since been raised to $250,000. The present officers of the company are
President, W. G. Irwin; Vice-President, J. A. Hopper; Treasurer, Godfrey
Brown; Secretary, W. M. Giffard; Auditor, J. F. Hackfeld. The works of
the company occupy a brick building 100 ft. by 100 ft. at the corner of
Alakea and Haleknniln streets to which has also been attached the large
cold storage building. Steam power is used entirely, there being two 150
horse power tubular boilers and one 350 horse power Hine safety boiler.
There are three engines of 100, 300 and 350 horse power respectively,
and four dynamos supply electricity for the system of 6,000 incandescent
and arc lights and motors used in different business houses about town.
The management of the company's works is in the hands of Theo. Hoffman,
a practical electrician who has held the position since Sept. 1, 1894.
W. F. Warriner is first superintendent. In the spring of 1896 an ice
manufacturing plant was added, also a cold storage building, with a
capacity of 100,000 cubic feet. The ice plant manufactures all the ice
used in the city of Honolulu. The refrigerating engine is a Frick
compound Corliss type of 100 horse power, run with compound condensers.
The water before made into ice is reboiled twice and filtered five
The cold storage plant
is divided into fifteen rooms with temperature varying from 10 deg. to
42 deg. Far. Meat markets, grocers, fruit and liquor dealers of the city
have already taken up nearly all the available space of the plant. The
building is two stories with all the latest fittings as electric
elevators, electric lights through all the rooms, overhead tracks in the
large meat rooms, etc., etc. In the electrical department the company
keeps a large stock of electrical fittings and is prepared to install
electric plants and supply all the necessary fittings for house
M. W. McChesney & Sons
which has lately established a large canning factory for canning
pineapples and other fruit products of the country. The firm has also
figured prominently as the pioneers in the sale of Island coffee.
Although Hawaii is a
coffee producing country, many of the wholesale and retail houses had
supplied their trade with imported material when the berry was growing
on the hillsides of their own country.
Although the coffee
product is yet rather small, McChesney & Sons took what there was and
prepared it for the market, finding ready purchasers.
The guardian spirit of
this firm may well be said to be home manufacture. The men who compose
the firm are highly respected, active business men who have been
prominent in politics as well as business circles.
This firm was
established in 1879 by Matthew Wats6n McChesney who came to the Islands
from New York State. Mr. McChesney was a tanner by trade and established
a small tannery in connection with a grocery store the goods for which
he brought out on his first trip.
The following year his
two sons H. N. and R. W. McChesney came to the country and conducted the
grocery business which had grown sufficiently to require more
assistance. The founder of the firm died in 1888 at the age of 83 years.
At this time H. N. McChesney sold out his interest and the firm was
conducted by J. M., F. W. and R. W. McChesney. During the ten years
that* had elapsed the grocery department had developed a large wholesale
trade throughout the Islands and the tannery had also been enlarged to
meet the demands of the increasing business of the country. In 1881, the
Honolulu Soap Works was added to the enterprises in which the firm of
McChesney & Sons were the prime movers. These works, started in a small
way, have constantly enlarged and now turn out 'ten tons of pure grade
laundry soap at each boiling. This department employs a good number of
men and now supply nearly all the island trade with laundry soap, the
output averaging, some 800 boxes per month. The members of the firm have
also taken a lively interest in the fruit trade of the country, F. W.
McChesney being the president of the Woodlawn Fruit.
Wm. G. Irwin & Co.
This firm is composed
of Messrs. Claus Spreckels and Wm. G. Irwin, and controls the entire
Spreckels interests in the Hawaiian Islands, Mr. W. G. Irwin being the
acting partner in the firm. Wm. G. Irwin & Co. are the leading factors
in the sugar business of these Islands.
This firm was first
established in 1874 by Wm. G. Irwin, Col. Z. S. Spaulding and John S.
Walker, who continued as its proprietors until 1880, when the firm
dissolved, and Messrs. Irwin and Spreckels became associated and
continued the business under the old name. On July 1st, 1890, the
concern was incorporated with a capital of $500,000, all the stock being
retained by the principals, except a small amount that was placed among
the trusted employes of the firm. Prior to 1880 Mr. Spreckels had become
largely interested in the sugar industry of Hawaii,
but up to that time had nobody directly representing his interests. His
operations became, however, so extended that he found it necessary to
have a regular representative at Honolulu, and having become well and
favorably acquainted with Mr. Irwin in previous transactions, in which
the latter acted in the capacity of sugar buyer for J. D. Spreckels of
he made W. G. Irwin his partner.
enterprise and enormous wealth of Glaus Spreckels at his back gave this
firm immense advantage over all competitors. In addition to the
plantations of which Mr. Spreckels was already whole or part owner, the
agency and control of others was secured by advancing money, both on
crops and on the plantations themselves, this firm having had due them
at one time from planters on these Islands some two and a half millions
of dollars. New plantations were also started on the firm's account.
They acted as the Islands agents for the Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar
Co. from its inception.
They also started and
enlarged numerous others, including the Paauhau Plantation, the Hakalau
Plantation, the Hilo Sugar Co., and the Hutchinson Plantation, each of
which has an annual capacity of from six to seven thousand tons. The
total amount of sugar handled by Wm. G. Irwin & Co. from the crop of
1891 was nearly 50,000 tons.
branch of the business of Wm. G. Irwin & Co. is the agency of the
Oceanic Steamship Company, which runs one steamer, namely, the "Australia,"
between the ports of Honolulu and San Francisco, and the "Mariposa" and
the "Alameda" between San Francisco
and Australia, and which also runs a large number of packets between the
Islands and the Pacific coast, carrying lumber and merchandise to Wm. G.
Irwin & Co. and others of Honolulu, and returning to San Francisco with sugar and rice. The company is also agent for the new
Japan-Seattle line, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha.
The lines of
merchandise dealt in by Wm. G. Irwin & Co. consist of such goods as are
in demand on plantations and in plantation districts. Their trade is
large and extends all over the Islands, but the bulk of it consists in
supplying, the plantations of which they have the exclusive control.
All the various
departments of this enormous business, as well as all the plantations
themselves, are under the direct supervision of Mr. Wm. G. Irwin.
St. Louis College
St. Louis College, G. Bertram principal, is located at the foot of
Beretania street. The premises, abounding with luxuriant vegetation and
all kinds of tropical trees and plants, formerly belonged to the
"Montgomery Estate," and were purchased by the late Rt. Rev. Hermann,
D. D., Bishop of
Olba, as the site for this college. He erected a two-story brick
building, and after its erection, procured a corps of teachers from" the
States. In 1883 these took charge of the institution. At the end of the
first year it was found necessary to provide additional accommodations
on account of the rapid increase in the number of pupils. Two large,
roomy two-story buildings were then erected. The buildings, though
modest in appearance, are well furnished. The chemical and philosophical
apparatus was imported from Europe.
The College also
possesses a collection of minerals and Hawaiian curios and a library for
the use of the students. The latter contains a good selection of
juvenile books, and several of the leading American periodicals.
The St. Louis College
aims to be a first-class preparatory, classical and commercial school.
The course of studies is well graded. It is completed in the High Class,
in which a thorough and practical knowledge in the several departments
of business, literature and science is imparted. Students may pursue
special courses in music, art and modern languages. Greek and Latin are